Energy metabolism in nuclear reprogramming.
Nuclear reprogramming with stemness factors enables resetting of somatic differentiated tissue back to the pluripotent ground state. Recent evidence implicates mitochondrial restructuring and bioenergetic plasticity as key components underlying execution of orchestrated dedifferentiation and derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Aerobic to anaerobic transition of somatic oxidative energy metabolism into a glycolytic metabotype promotes proficient reprogramming, establishing a novel regulator of acquired stemness. Metabolomic profiling has further identified specific metabolic remodeling traits defining lineage redifferentiation of pluripotent cells. Therefore, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism comprise a vital axis for biomarker discovery, intimately reflecting the molecular dynamics fundamental for the resetting and redirection of cell fate.