Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach. Part 1: Electrochemical basis, technique, and experimental results.
Eleven experimental saccular aneurysms were created on the common carotid artery of swine. Between 3 and 15 days after creation of these aneurysms, they were thrombosed via an endovascular approach, using a very soft detachable platinum coil delivered through a microcatheter positioned within the aneurysm. This detachable platinum coil was soldered to a stainless steel delivery guidewire. Intra-aneurysmal thrombosis was then initiated by applying a low positive direct electric current to the delivery guidewire. Thrombosis occurred because of the attraction of negatively charged white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, and fibrinogen to the positively charged platinum coil positioned within the aneurysm. The passage of electric current detached the platinum coil within the clotted aneurysm in 4 to 12 minutes. This detachment was elicited by electrolysis of the stainless steel wire nearest to the thrombus-covered platinum coil. Control angiograms obtained 2 to 6 months postembolization confirmed permanent aneurysm occlusion as well as patency of the parent artery in all cases. No angiographic manifestation of untoward distal embolization was noted. Due to the encouraging results of this research, this technique has been applied in selected clinical cases which are described in Part 2 of this study.