Advanced glycation end products and nutrition.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may play an important adverse role in process of atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging and chronic renal failure. Levels of N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine and fluorescent AGE values were estimated in two nutritional population groups--alternative group (vegetarians--plant food, milk products, eggs) and traditional group (omnivorous subjects). Vegetarians have a significantly higher carboxymethyllysine content in plasma and fluorescent AGE values. Intake of proteins, lysine and monosaccharides as well as culinary treatment, consumption of food AGEs (mainly from technologically processed products) and the routes of Maillard reaction in organism are the substantial sources of plasma AGEs. Vegetarians consume less proteins and saccharides. Lysine intake is significantly reduced (low content in plant proteins). Subjects on alternative nutrition do not use high temperature for culinary treatment and consume low amount of technologically processed food. Fructation induced AGE fluorescence is greater as compared with that induced by glucose. It is due to higher participation of a more reactive acyclic form of fructose. Intake of vegetables and fruit with predominance of fructose is significantly higher in vegetarians. Comparison of nutrition and plasma AGEs in vegetarian and omnivorous groups shows that the higher intake of fructose in alternative nutrition of healthy subjects may cause an increase of AGE levels.