A behaviorally-based measure of manifest needs in work settings
This investigation represents an attempt to develop and validate a research instrument (Manifest Needs Questionnaire) capable of measuring the four needs of achievement, affiliation, autonomy, and dominance using behaviorally-based scales. The instrument is designed to measure such needs with specific reference to work settings and with minimal time requirements for completion. Results of both laboratory and field studies among 640 subjects indicate that the instrument exhibits acceptable levels of convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity, as well as reasonably high test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Results are compared to other, lengthier instruments designed to measure similar needs.