Ocean bottom profiling with ambient noise: A model for the passive fathometer
A model is presented for the complete passive fathometer response to ocean surface noise, interfering discrete noise sources, and locally uncorrelated noise in an ideal waveguide. The leading order term of the ocean surface noise contribution produces the cross-correlation of vertical multipaths and yields the depth of sub-bottom reflectors. Discrete noise incident on the array via multipaths give multiple peaks in the fathometer response. These peaks may obscure the sub-bottom reflections but can be attenuated with use of minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) steering vectors. The seabed critical angle introduces discontinuities in the spatial distribution of distant surface noise and may introduce spurious peaks in the passive fathometer response. These peaks can be attenuated by beamforming within a bandwidth limited by the array geometry and critical angle.