The spike-timing dependence of plasticity.
In spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), the order and precise temporal interval between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes determine the sign and magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD). STDP is widely utilized in models of circuit-level plasticity, development, and learning. However, spike timing is just one of several factors (including firing rate, synaptic cooperativity, and depolarization) that govern plasticity induction, and its relative importance varies across synapses and activity regimes. This review summarizes this broader view of plasticity, including the forms and cellular mechanisms for the spike-timing dependence of plasticity, and, the evidence that spike timing is an important determinant of plasticity in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.