Physical limitations on metamaterials: restrictions on scattering and absorption over a frequency interval
A limitation on the extinction cross section, valid for all scatterers satisfying some basic physical assumptions, is investigated. The physical limitation is obtained from the holomorphic properties of the forward scattering dyadic. The analysis focuses on the consequences for materials with negative permittivity and permeability, i.e. metamaterials. From a broadband point of view, the limitations imply that there is no fundamental difference between metamaterials and ordinary materials with respect to scattering and absorption. The analysis is illustrated by three numerical examples of metamaterials modelled by temporal dispersion.