Mimicking Adhesive Functionalities of Blood Platelets using Ligand-Decorated Liposomes
Platelet transfusion is used for treating a variety of bleeding complications. Natural platelet-based transfusion products have very short storage life (3?7 days) and high risks of biological contamination and side effects. Consequently, there is significant clinical interest in synthetic platelet-mimetic constructs that can promote hemostasis, while allowing convenient large-scale production, easy portability, long storage life, and minimal biological risks. To this end, research efforts are being directed toward particles that can amplify aggregation of activated platelets or can mimic platelet?s ability to undergo adhesion to various vascular matrix proteins. Here, we report on a synthetic construct design that combines the mimicry of platelet?s shear-dependent adhesion to vWF and shear-independent adhesion to collagen under flow, on a single particle. For this, we have used 150-nm-diameter liposomes as model particles and have decorated their surface simultaneously with vWF-binding and collagen-binding recombinant protein fragments or synthetic peptide motifs. We demonstrate in vitro that these surface-modified liposomes are able to adhere onto vWF surfaces in a shear-dependent fashion and onto collagen surfaces in a shear-independent fashion under flow. Moreover, when the vWF-binding and the collagen-binding were integrated on a single liposomal platform, the resultant heteromultivalent liposomes showed significantly enhanced adhesion to a vWF/collagen mixed surface compared to liposomes bearing vWF-binding or collagen-binding ligands only, as long as the ligand motifs did not spatially interfere with each other. Altogether, our results establish the feasibility of efficiently mimicking platelet?s dual adhesion mechanisms on synthetic particles.