Attachment strength of an adhesive nuisance mussel, limnoperna fortunei, against water flow
The attachment strength of the freshwater mussel Limnoperna fortunei against water flow was studied. Newton's expression successfully described the hydrodynamic drag force acting on the mussel with a drag coefficient value of 1.03. The drag?resistant force (defined as hydrodynamic drag force at mussel detachment) was smaller than the detachment force measured using a tensile load test. A fairly good correlation was obtained between the drag?resistant force and the number of secreted threads. The drag?resistant force divided by the number of threads increased with shell size, suggesting that byssal thread strength increased with mussel growth. For the mussel specimens obtained from a water transmission pipe, thread width increased with shell size. However, thread width was not dependent on current velocity. There was no correlation between the number of secreted threads and shell length, which indicated that the number of secreted threads did not change with mussel size. Therefore, the water velocity needed to detach mussels increases with shell size of the mussel when the number of secreted threads is constant. The increases in the water velocity to detach mussels with larger shells suggests that the mussel becomes more resistant to water flow as it grows. It is estimated that a flow velocity of around lms?1 is critical for attachment/detachment of a juvenile mussel with a shell length of a few millimeters and one hundred byssal threads.