Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS)
Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25-item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: notions of entitlement; failure to accept responsibility; short-term orientation; insensitivity to impact of crime; and negative attitudes toward authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians’ ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed.