GLONASS as a key element of the Russian Positioning Service
The combined use of GPS and GLONASS satellite systems is a main technology for the development of the fundamental geodetic network in Russia and for crust movement studies along the North Eurasian tectonic plate. The GLONASS state program foresees to come to 18 satellites in constellation in 2007–2008, and full operation capability (24 satellites) will be reached by 2009. By this time, all permanent stations of the state fundamental geodetic network will be provided with the two frequency GPS and GLONASS receivers. A collocation of these stations with the existing Russian sites of the international GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) network is foreseen. The second generation of satellites: GLONASS-M have the L2 civil signal, extended lifetime and improved clock stability. GLONASS-K satellites are expected by 2009 with the L3 civil signal and Synthetic Aperture Radar function. The GLONASS ground control and monitoring network is planning to be extended up to 9–12 stations and cooperation with GNSS service will be useful. A combination of GPS and GLONASS will benefit the scientific geodynamic research and practical users, especially in the urban, mountain and near polar areas. Results of the experimental GLONASS data analysis performed at the Institute of Astronomy (Moscow) with the use of GIPSY-OASIS2 software for 16 globally distributed sites of the international global network for the time period 25. 11. 2005 to 03. 12. 2005 are considered.