Organisational issues for global navigation satellites systems implementation
The availability in the next future of space-based assets supporting global references services such as positioning, navigation, timing, weather or even risk/disaster mitigation for maritime, air, or ground users holds great potentials for the benefits of mankind. However, several challenge need to be met before accessing those benefits. Apart from technical aspects that remain considerable, organizational and institutional aspects shall not be overlooked since they often represent severe constraints for the implementation of such large complex systems. Taking global navigation satellites system for air transport as an example, this paper will address the key implementation issues such as control, sovereignty, liability, international competition and cost recovery. A survey of the implementation strategies for augmentation systems proposed for the various regions (mainly in the USA, Europe, CIS and Japan) is provided. An assessment of the various policies is presented as well as concluding remarks and recommendations for further studies.