Export of Algal Biomass from the Melting Arctic Sea Ice
2012 saw the greatest Arctic ice minimum ever recorded. This allowed unprecedented access for research vessels deep into the Arctic Ocean to make high-latitude observations of ice melt and associated phenomena. From the RV Polarstern between 84° to 89° North, Boetius et al. (p. 1430, published online 14 February; see the cover) observed large-scale algal aggregates of the diatom Melosira arctica hanging beneath multiyear and seasonal ice across a wide range of latitudes. The strands of algae were readily dislodged and formed aggregates on the seabed up to 4400 meters below, where the algae are consumed by large mobile invertebrates, such as sea cucumbers and brittle stars. Although Nansen observed sub-ice algae in the Arctic 100 years ago, the extent of this bloom phenomenon was unknown. The dynamics of such blooms must impinge on global carbon budgets, but how the dynamics will change as ice melt becomes more extensive remains unclear.