Ultrastructural study on scab resistance expressed in epidermal pectin layers of pear leaves
Proliferation and collapse of subcuticular hyphae of Venturia nashicola race 1 were studied ultrastructurally, after inoculation of susceptible Japanese pear cv. Kousui, resistant Japanese pear cv. Kinchaku, resistant Asian pear strain Mamenashi 12 and nonhost European pear cv. Flemish Beauty leaves, to understand the nature of the resistance mechanism. After cuticle penetration by the pathogen, the hyphae were observed at lower frequency in epidermal pectin layers and middle lamellae of leaves of the three resistant plants than in those of susceptible ones. This result suggested that fungal growth was suppressed in the incompatible interaction between pear and V. nashicola race 1. In the pectin layers of all inoculated plants, some hyphae had modifications such as breaks in the plasmalemma with plasmolysis, necrotic cytoplasm and degraded cell walls. More hyphae had collapsed in the leaves of the three resistant plants than in those of the susceptible cv. Kousui. In collapsed hyphae, the polymerized cell walls broke into numerous fibrous and amorphous pieces, showing that the scab resistance might be associated with cell wall-degrading enzymes from pear plants.