A semi-discrete shell finite element for textile composite reinforcement forming simulation
A triangular shell element for the simulation of textile composite reinforcements forming is proposed. This element is made up of unit woven cells. The internal virtual works are added on all woven cells of the element. They depend on tensions, in-plane shear and bending moments that are directly those given by the experimental tests that are specific to textile composite reinforcement. The element has only displacement degrees of freedom; the bending curvatures are obtained from the displacement of the neighbouring elements. A set of example shows the efficiency of the approach and the relative roles of the tensile, in-plane shear and bending rigidities. Especially their influence on the appearance and the development of wrinkles in draping and forming tests is analysed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.