Anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia in mice with ulcerative colitis
Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch is used in folk medicines to treat intestinal abscesses, acute appendicitis, and dysentery in Asia. Although recent reports indicate that Patrinia scabiosaefolia has sedative and anti-tumor effects, its effects on ulcerative colitis have not been previously explored. To determine the effects and the mode of action of the methanol extract of the roots of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PME) on a model of colitis in mice induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We induced colitis using DSS in 5-week-ICR mice over 7 days and estimated disease activity index (DAI), which took into account body weight, stool consistency, gross bleeding, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) accumulation. Colon lengths and spleen weights were measured. Histological changes were observed by H&E staining. Pro-inflammatory mediators, namely, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-Î± (TNF-Î±), interleukin-1Î² (IL-1Î²), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were determined using Griess assays, immunoassays, and by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. PME significantly attenuated DSS-induced DAI scores and tissue MPO accumulation, which implied that it suppressed weight loss, diarrhea, gross bleeding, and the infiltrations of immune cells. PME administration also effectively and dose-dependently prevented shortening of colon length and enlargement of spleen size. Histological examinations indicated that PME suppressed edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS. Furthermore, PME inhibited the abnormal secretions and mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as, TNF-Î±, IL-1Î², and IL-6. These results suggest that PME has an anti-inflammatory effect at colorectal sites that is due to the down-regulations of the productions and expressions of inflammatory mediators, and that it may have therapeutic value in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch is used in folk medicines to treat intestinal abscesses, acute appendicitis, and dysentery in Asia. Our study demonstrated that methanol extract of the root of Patrinia scabiosaefolia suppresses gut inflammation by down-regulations of inflammatory mediators in DSS-induced colitis models.