Multidimensional gas chromatography
Analytical multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) and the excellent separation efficiency it achieves serve advanced characterization of complex volatile and semi-volatile samples, which is unlikely to be accomplished by single-dimensional chromatography. Here, we provide a technical overview of recent method implementation in MDGC, for both the classical sense (i.e. conventional heart-cut MDGC), including recent approaches to MDGC, and the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) variant. We summarize selected applications in diverse fields that best typify the role of these methods. We also draw attention to concepts (e.g., orthogonality of separation mechanisms and recently introduced microfluidic technology), and briefly comment on compatibility of detection systems. As a guide to potential opportunities for continued innovation in multidimensional applications, we highlight the capabilities of GC platforms that either combine various GC × GC and MDGC arrangements or offer alternative operational modes for implementation of these methods. âº Concepts of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) are reviewed. âº Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) has witnessed a resurgence of interest. âº Designs of flow-switching devices and recent applications in MDGC are reviewed. âº A generic platform design offers GC×GC, MDGC, and integrated GC×GC/MDGC systems. âº MDGC and GC×GC represent a continuum of multi-column analytical methods.