Discrimination between defective and non-defective Brazilian coffee beans by their volatile profile
The coffee roasted in Brazil is considered to be of low quality, due to the presence of defective coffee beans that depreciate the beverage quality. In view of the fact that coffee flavour is directly related to the volatile compounds produced during roasting, the objective of the present study was to perform a comparative evaluation of the volatile fraction of defective (black, immature, sour) and healthy coffee beans, in order to find possible chemical markers for detection of defective coffee beans in roasted coffee. Volatiles extraction and concentration was performed by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) of the roasted coffee headspace, using a triple phase (divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane) fiber. Analysis of the volatile profiles was performed by GC–MS. The results obtained showed that the proposed methodology was adequate for extraction, concentration and analysis of the coffees volatile profile. Several substances were identified as possible markers for differentiating black, sour and immature beans from healthy coffee beans. Statistical analysis of the data by principal components (PCA) demonstrated that the volatile profile enables the differentiation of healthy and defective coffees. The data were separated into two major groups, one represented by immature and black beans and the other by healthy and sour coffee beans. Such results indicated that black and sour beans can be associated to fermentation of immature and of healthy beans, respectively.