Trends in Counter-Current Chromatography: Applications to Natural Products Purification
Counter-current chromatography (CCC), a unique continuous liquid-liquid partition chromatographic technique, has been widely used in the separation and purification of natural products. This technique has made great progress in recent years. In this paper, the different possible separation methods developed in CCC are described. It includes classical CCC, pH-zone-refining, pH-gradient, ion-pairing, multi-channel and two-dimensional CCC, dual-flow, liquid-liquid-liquid three-phase systems, elution-extrusion, gradient elution, powder direct injection, with some words for the various techniques used in pre- and post-CCC procedures, and detection modes. The basic mechanisms of each method are presented and applications are summarized. The future of CCC developments, including its application in protein purification and enrichment, and new platforms, are also discussed. This review paper aims to aid scientists who are interested in the field of CCC research for natural product isolation.