A review on determination of steroids in biological samples exploiting nanobio-electroanalytical methods
The applications of nanomaterial modified sensors, molecularly imprinting polymer based, aptamer based, and immunosensors have been described in the determination of steroids using electroanalytical techniques. After a brief description of the steroids and assays in biological fluids, the principles of electrochemical detection with the advantages and the limitations of the various sensors are presented. The nanomaterial modified sensors catalyze the oxidation/reduction of steroids and are suitable for sensing them in environmental samples and biological fluids. The determination of steroids based on their reduction has been found more useful in comparison to oxidation as the common metabolites present in the biological fluids do not undergo reduction in the usual potential window and hence, do not interfere in the determination. The sensors based on immunosensors and aptamers were found more sensitive and selective for steroid determination. Conducting polymer modified bio-sensors and microchip devices are suggested as possible future prospects for the ultra sensitive and simultaneous determination of steroids and their metabolites in various samples. âº Review article on steroids determination from 2009 to present. âº Nanomaterial, molecular imprinting polymer modified and immunosensors are discussed. âº Detection limit is similar to chromatographic techniques for many steroids. âº Future prospects using nanoconducting polymer modified sensor and microchips suggested.