Determination of disease biomarkers in Eucalyptus by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis
In this paper is reported the use of the chromatographic profiles of volatiles to determine disease markers in plants – in this case, leaves of Eucalyptus globulus contaminated by the necrotroph fungus Teratosphaeria nubilosa. The volatile fraction was isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–fast quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC × GC–qMS). For the correlation between the metabolic profile described by the chromatograms and the presence of the infection, unfolded-partial least squares discriminant analysis (U-PLS-DA) with orthogonal signal correction (OSC) were employed. The proposed method was checked to be independent of factors such as the age of the harvested plants. The manipulation of the mathematical model obtained also resulted in graphic representations similar to real chromatograms, which allowed the tentative identification of more than 40 compounds potentially useful as disease biomarkers for this plant/pathogen pair. The proposed methodology can be considered as highly reliable, since the diagnosis is based on the whole chromatographic profile rather than in the detection of a single analyte. âº Volatiles from Eucalyptus globulus leaves were determined by HS-SPME + GC × GC–qMS. âº Forty markers of contamination with pathogen Teratosphaeria nubilosa were found. âº PLS-DA with orthogonal signal correction (OSC) was used for data processing. âº GC × GC proved to be a powerful tool for plant disease investigation.