Experience in South Africa of combining bioanalysis and instrumental analysis of PCDD/Fs
We outline the experiences and the challenges of optimizing two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS) in conjunction with the H4IIE-luc bio-assay for analyzing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the South African context. Investigating such alternative analytical methods can assist countries with developing economies to meet their obligations under the Stockholm Convention. âº Developing countries need cost-effective methods to analyze organic pollutants. âº A combination of bio- and instrumental analysis can be used to obtain relevant ecotoxicological data. âº Care must be taken in implementation to focus on extraction and clean-up procedures.