Occurrence and Source of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in Tidal Flats of the Ariake Bay, Japan
In this study, we hypothesize that natural photochemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flats are responsible for the occurrence of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs). This study aims to survey the impact of photochemical reactions using a combination of field surveys and lab-scale experiments. Concentrations and profiles of PAHs and Cl-PAHs in road dust and sediments collected from seven tunnels and two watersheds, respectively, were determined. In the lab-scale experiments, anthracene was irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light under various salinity conditions. No detectable Cl-PAHs were found in the road dust. However, Cl-PAHs were detected in the sediments from 700 to 6.1 ? 103 pg g?1 and specifically from downstream sites. 2-Monochloroanthracene (2-Cl-ANT) and 9,10-dichloroanthracene (9,10-di-Cl-ANT) were dominant in the sediments. In the Domen River watershed, the ?Cl-PAHs and the salinity showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) in the sediments, while such a correlation was not found for PAHs. 2-Cl-ANT, 9-monochloroanthracene, and 9,10-di-Cl-ANT were identified as transformation products in the UV irradiation experiments. Production of these Cl-PAHs was dependent on the solution salinity. These results support our hypothesis, and we conclude that photochemical reactions significantly contribute to the occurrence of Cl-PAHs in the studied tidal flats.