Determination of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Properties and Total Phenolics of Two “Endemic” Lamiaceae Species from Turkey: Ballota rotundifolia L. and Teucrium chamaedrys C. Koch
This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the amount of total phenolics of the methanol extracts of Ballota rotundifolia L. and Teucrium chamaedrys C. Koch. In the case of antimicrobial activity tests, polar sub-fractions of the methanol extracts of plant species exhibited weakest antimicrobial activity when compared with the non-polar ones. While, non-polar sub-fraction of B. rotundifolia showed moderate activity against A. lwoffii, C. perfringens and the yeasts, T. chamaedrys performed excellent activity pattern against all of the tested microorganisms. The sub-fractions were also screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary tests, namely DPPH free radical-scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Non-polar extracts of the plant species remained inactive in both test systems. On the other hand polar extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities. In DPPH system, free radical scavenging effect of T. chamaedrys was measured as 18.00 ± 1.42 µg.mg−1. It is extremely important to point out that, polar sub-fraction of T. chamaedrys is found as effective as the positive control BHT. Non-polar sub-fraction of T. chamaedrys found to have the highest total phenolic amount (97.12 ± 1.28 μg/mg). Results obtained from this experiment confirm the relationship between the amount of phenolics and biological activities.