Challenge in the speciation of nitrogen-containing compounds in heavy petroleum fractions by high temperature comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Extending the knowledge related to nitrogen-containing compounds presents an important interest for the petroleum industry due to their implication in atmosphere pollution as well as their inhibitive or refractive behaviour towards hydroprocessing. Most of the nitrogenated species are concentrated in heavy petroleum cuts. As no analytical method is resolutive enough for these heavy cuts, particularly regarding nitrogen-containing compounds, a new approach is needed. For this reason, this study focuses on the development of a GC × GC technique, through the hyphenation of a specific NCD detector with a GC × GC system at high temperature. The performances of highly polar thermally stable stationary phases, in particular those composed of promising ionic liquids, were monitored in normal and reversed configurations. Subsequently, after the extraction of neutral or basic compounds by adsorption on an ion-exchange resin, a first quantitative determination was attempted for a straight-run and a direct coal liquefaction vacuum gas oils. This study led to a better understanding of the behaviour of highly aromatic N-compounds by 2D-GC including an ionic liquid phase as well as a deeper N-characterization of heavy petroleum fractions.