Human recombinant palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) for preclinical evaluation of enzyme replacement therapy for infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, also known as Haltia-Santavuori disease) is a lysosomal storage disorder of infants and children characterized by blindness, seizures and a progressive neurodegenerative course. Recent clinical trials have involved neural stem cells and gene therapy directed to the central nervous system; however, enzyme replacement therapy has never been addressed. In the current paper, we describe the production of human recombinant PPT1 (the defective enzyme in INCL) by standard methods in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. The enzyme is largely mannose 6-phosphorylated as assessed by mannose 6-phosphate receptor binding (80% bound) and taken up rapidly by immortalized patient lymphoblasts, where clearance of PPT substrates was demonstrated (EC(50) of 0.25 nM after overnight incubation). When injected intravenously into PPT1-deficient mice, the clearance of recombinant human PPT1 from plasma was rapid, with a half-life of 10 min. Most of the injected dose was distributed to the kidney and liver and potentially corrective levels were also observed in heart, lung and spleen. Brain uptake was minimal, as expected based on experience with other intravenously administered lysosomal enzymes. The enzyme may be useful as an adjunct to central nervous system-directed therapies and could be used as a starting point for modifications designed to improve brain delivery. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.