Two-Qubit Separability Probabilities: A Concise Formula
We report a concise answer--in the case of 2 x 2 systems--to the fundamental quantum-information-theoretic question as to "the volume of separable states" posed by Zyczkowski, Horodecki, Sanpera and Lewenstein (Phys. Rev. A, 58, 883 ). We proceed by applying the Mathematica command FindSequenceFunction to a series of conjectured Hilbert-Schmidt generic 2 x 2 (rational-valued) separability probabilities p(a), a = 1, 2,...,32, with a = 1 indexing standard two-qubit systems, and a = 2, two-quater(nionic)bit systems. These 32 inputted values of p(a)--as well as 32 companion non-inputted values for the half-integers, a = 1/2 (two-re[al]bit) systems), 3/2,..., 63/2, are advanced on the basis of high-precision probability-distribution-reconstruction computations, employing 7,501 determinantal moments of partially transposed 4 x 4 density matrices. The function P(a) given by application of the command fully reproduces both of these 32-length sequences, and an equivalent outcome is obtained if the half-integral series is the one inputted. The lengthy expression (containing six hypergeometric functions) obtained for P(a) is, then, impressively condensed (by Qing-Hu Hou and colleagues), using Zeilberger's algorithm. For generic (9-dimensional) two-rebit systems, P(1/2) = 29/64, (15-dimensional) two-qubit systems, P(1) = 8/33, (27-dimensional) two-quaterbit systems, P(2) = 26/323, while for generic classical (3-dimensional) systems, P(0)=1.