Distinguishability of Quantum States by Positive Operator-Valued Measures with Positive Partial Transpose
We study the distinguishability of bipartite quantum states by Positive Operator-Valued Measures with positive partial transpose (PPT POVM). The contributions of this paper include: (1). We give a negative answer to an open problem of [M. Horodecki $et. al$, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047902(2003)] showing a limitation of their method for detecting nondistinguishability. (2). We show that a maximally entangled state and its orthogonal complement, no matter how many copies are supplied, can not be distinguished by PPT POVMs, even unambiguously. This result is much stronger than the previously known ones. (3). We study the entanglement cost of distinguishing quantum states. It is proved that entanglement $\sqrt2/3\ket00+\sqrt1/3\ket11$ is sufficient and necessary for distinguishing three Bell states by PPT POVMs. An upper bound of entanglement cost for distinguishing a $d⊗ d$ pure state and its orthogonal complement is obtained for separable operations. Based on this bound, we are able to construct two orthogonal quantum states which cannot be distinguished unambiguously by separable POVMs, but finite copies would make them perfectly distinguishable by LOCC. We further observe that a two-qubit maximally entangled state is always enough for distinguishing a $d⊗ d$ pure state and its orthogonal complement by PPT POVMs, no matter the value of $d$. In sharp contrast, an entangled state with Schmidt number at least $d$ is always needed for distinguishing such two states by separable POVMs. As an application, we show that the entanglement cost of distinguishing a $d⊗ d$ maximally entangled state and its orthogonal complement must be a maximally entangled state for $d=2$, which implies that teleportation is optimal; and in general, it could be chosen as $\mathcalO(\frac\log dd)$.