Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activates erythropoietin gene transcription in Hep3B cells subjected to hypoxia. HIF-1 activity is also induced by hypoxia in non-erythropoietin-producing cells, suggesting a more general regulatory role. We now report that RNAs encoding the glycolytic enzymes aldolase A (ALDA), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), and pyruvate kinase M were induced by exposure of Hep3B or HeLa cells to inducers of HIF-1 (1% O2, cobalt chloride, or desferrioxamine), whereas cycloheximide blocked induction of glycolytic RNAs and HIF-1 activity. Oligonucleotides from the ALDA, PGK1, enolase 1, lactate dehydrogenase A, and phosphofructokinase L (PFKL) genes, containing sequences similar to the HIF-1 binding site in the erythropoietin enhancer, specifically bound HIF-1 present in crude nuclear extracts or affinity-purified preparations. Sequences from the ALDA, PFKL, and PGK1 genes containing HIF-1 binding sites mediated hypoxia-inducible transcription in transient expression assays. These results support the role of HIF-1 as a mediator of adaptive responses to hypoxia that underlie cellular and systemic oxygen homeostasis.