Colloquium : Andreev reflection and Klein tunneling in graphene
A colloquium-style introduction to two electronic processes in a carbon monolayer (graphene) is presented, each having an analog in relativistic quantum mechanics. Both processes couple electronlike and holelike states, through the action of either a superconducting pair potential or an electrostatic potential. The first process, Andreev reflection, is the electron-to-hole conversion at the interface with a superconductor. The second process, Klein tunneling, is the tunneling through a p-n junction. The absence of backscattering, characteristic of massless Dirac fermions, implies that both processes happen with unit efficiency at normal incidence. Away from normal incidence, retro-reflection in the first process corresponds to negative refraction in the second process. In the quantum Hall effect, both Andreev reflection and Klein tunneling induce the same dependence of the two-terminal conductance plateau on the valley isospin of the carriers. Existing and proposed experiments on Josephson junctions and bipolar junctions in graphene are discussed from a unified perspective.