First Cosmological Constraints on Dark Energy from the Radial Baryon Acoustic Scale
We present cosmological constraints arising from the first measurement of the radial (line-of-sight) baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale in the large scale structure traced by the galaxy distribution. Here we use these radial BAO measurements at z = 0.24 and z = 0.43 to derive new constraints on dark energy and its equation of state for a flat universe, without any other assumptions on the cosmological model: w = -1.14 +/- 0.39 (assumed constant), Omega_m = 0.24+0.06-0.05. If we drop the assumption of flatness and include previous cosmic microwave background and supernova measurements, we find w = -0.974 +/- 0.058, Omega_m = 0.271 +/- 0.015, and Omega_k = -0.002 +/- 0.006, in good agreement with a flat cold dark matter cosmology with a cosmological constant. To our knowledge, these are the most stringent constraints on these parameters to date under our stated assumptions.