Phase transitions in Paradigm models
In this letter we propose two general models for paradigm shift, deterministic propagation model (DM) and stochastic propagation model (SM). By defining the order parameter $m$ based on the diversity of ideas, $Δ$, we study when and how the transition occurs as a cost $C$ in DM or an innovation probability $α$ in SM increases. In addition, we also investigate how the propagation processes affect on the transition nature. From the analytical calculations and numerical simulations $m$ is shown to satisfy the scaling relation $m=1-f(C/N)$ for DM with the number of agents $N$. In contrast, $m$ in SM scales as $m=1-f(α^a N)$.