Ensembles of physical states and random quantum circuits on graphs
In this paper we continue and extend the investigations of the ensembles of random physical states introduced in A. Hamma et al <a href="/abs/1109.4391">arXiv:1109.4391</a>. These ensembles are constructed by finite-length random quantum circuits (RQC) acting on the (hyper)edges of an underlying (hyper)graph structure. The latter encodes for the locality structure associated with finite-time quantum evolutions generated by physical i.e., local, Hamiltonians. Our goal is to analyze physical properties of typical states in these ensembles, in particular here we focus on proxies of quantum entanglement as purity and $α$-Renyi entropies. The problem is formulated in terms of matrix elements of superoperators which depend on the graph structure, choice of probability measure over the local unitaries and circuit length. In the $α=2$ case these superoperators act on a restricted multi-qubit space generated by permutation operators associated to the subsets of vertices of the graph. For permutationally invariant interactions the dynamics can be further restricted to an exponentially smaller subspace. We consider different families of RQCs and study their typical entanglement properties for finite-time as well as their asymptotic behavior. We find that area law and volume law are typical properties (that is, they hold in average and the fluctuations around the average are vanishing for the large system) of physical states. The area law arises when the evolution time is O(1) with respect to the size $L$ of the system, while the volume law arises as typical when the evolution time scales like O(L).