Dependency parsing by belief propagation
We formulate dependency parsing as a graphical model with the novel ingredient of global constraints. We show how to apply loopy belief propagation (BP), a simple and effective tool for approximate learning and inference. As a parsing algorithm, BP is both asymptotically and empirically efficient. Even with second-order features or latent variables, which would make exact parsing considerably slower or NP-hard, BP needs only O ( n 3 ) time with a small constant factor. Furthermore, such features significantly improve parse accuracy over exact first-order methods. Incorporating additional features would increase the runtime additively rather than multiplicatively.