The genetic structure of Mexican Mestizos of different locations: tracking back their origins through MHC genes, blood group systems, and microsatellites.
Mexican Mestizos, who are the result of the admixture of Spanish, Indian, and Black genes, were analyzed for different systems. Three populations from geographical distinct areas were studied: the north (State of Nuevo Leon ), the center (State of Guanajuato), and the highlands (mainly Mexico City). Ten blood group systems (N = 229), STRs (N = 107), HLA-A*, B*, C* (N = 116-167), and DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 (N = 40, 101, 160, respectively) were analyzed in the samples of the highlands. The three groups cluster together in the same branch: Mestizos from Venezuela, Mediterranean and Jews close to the cluster of Orientals, followed by Amerindians. All markers demonstrate that Indian genes are strongly represented in the highlands: Di(a), O, D(-)(+), s, A*0201, *0206, B*1539 (*1541), *3902, *3905, *3512, *3517, *4002, *4005, Cw*0801, *0304, *0401 among others. Cw*0501, *1203, *1204, and *1601 are of White ancestry. The most frequent haplotypes *0407-*03011-*0302 and *0802-*0401-*0402 are of Indian descent as well. The center and mainly the north show a more Caucasian and Semitic profile. The results demonstrate the high variability resulting from interethnic admixture, suggesting that this mechanism is the main factor responsible for the large diversity found in urban populations.