Risk measures for events with a stochastic duration: an application to drought analysis
Droughts, as many climatic and environmental phenomena, are events with a random duration. In the monitoring and risk management of this type of phenomena, it is important the development of measures of the risk that an ongoing event ends. This work develops a risk measure conditional on the current state of the event, that can be easily updated in real time. The measure is based on the hazard function of the duration of an event, that is modeled as a parametric function of covariates describing the current state of the process. The use of (time-dependent) internal covariates is often required to describe that state, and maximum likelihood methods cannot be used to estimate the model. Therefore, an approach based on partial likelihood functions that permit the inclusion of both external and internal covariates is suggested. This approach is very general but it has the drawback of requiring some programming to be implemented. However, it is proved that for durations with a geometric distribution, an equivalent and easily implemented approach based on generalized linear models can be used to estimate the hazard function. This methodology is applied to develop a risk measure in drought analysis. The approach is exemplified using the drought series from a Spanish location (Huesca) and internal covariates derived from the rainfall series. The whole modeling process is thoroughly described, including the covariate selection procedure and some new validation tools.