Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization
A precise, real-time, single-shot carrier–envelope phase (CEP) tagging technique for few-cycle pulses was developed and combined with cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy and velocity-map imaging to investigate and control CEP-dependent processes with attosecond resolution. The stability and precision of these new techniques have allowed for the study of intense, few-cycle, laser-matter dynamics with unprecedented detail. Moreover, the same stereo above-threshold ionization (ATI) measurement was expanded to multi-cycle pulses and allows for CEP locking and pulse-length determination. Here we review these techniques and their first applications to waveform characterization and control, non-sequential double ionization of argon, ATI of xenon and electron emission from SiO 2 nanospheres.