Aging increases Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine and caloric restriction decreases Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine and Nepsilon-(malondialdehyde)lysine in rat heart mitochondrial proteins.
The present investigation studies the effect of aging, short-term and long-term caloric restriction on four different markers of oxidative, glycoxidative or lipoxidative damage to heart mitochondrial proteins: protein carbonyls (measured by ELISA); Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and Nepsilon-(malondialdehyde)lysine (MDA-lys) measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Aging increased the steady state level of CML in rat heart mitochondria without changing the levels of the other three markers of protein damage. Short-term caloric restriction (six weeks) did not change any of the parameters measured. However, long-term (one year) caloric restriction decreased CEL and MDA-lys in heart mitochondria and did not change protein carbonyls and CML levels. The decrease in MDA-lys was not due to changes in the sensitivity of mitochondrial lipids to peroxidation since the measurements of the fatty acid composition showed that the total number of fatty acid double bonds was not changed by caloric restriction. The decrease in CEL and MDA-lys in caloric restriction agrees with the previously and consistently described finding that caloric restriction agrees with the previously and consistently described finding that caloric restriction lowers the rate of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rodent heart mitochondria, although in the case of CEL a caloric restriction-induced lowering of glycaemia can also be involved. The CEL and MDA-lys results support the notion that caloric restriction decreases oxidative stress-derived damage to heart mitochondrial proteins.