Paraquat-induced oxidative stress and dysfunction of the glutathione redox cycle in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.
Oxidative stress and changes in the antioxidant defense system that include the glutathione redox cycle in cultured pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells after exposure to paraquat at 0.1 and 0.5 mM were examined as a function of time. Cell viability was substantially lost 72 h after exposure to 0.5 mM paraquat, but not 0.1 mM paraquat. Viability loss was accompanied by increased glutathione-protein mixed disulfide formation, as well as a loss in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, indicating a low defense potential. At 4 h after exposure to paraquat at both doses, however, a marked loss in NADPH was found, together with a decrease in aconitase activity. With 0.5 mM paraquat, increased NADP(+) accompanied by NADPH loss diminished constantly after 48 h without recovery of lost NADPH, suggesting destruction of pyridine nucleotides under oxidative stress. NAD(+) decreased 72 h after exposure to 0.5 mM paraquat, but NADH was not influenced. 3-Aminobenzamide did not protect the loss in NADP(+) or NAD(+) and cell viability. Although oxidized glutathione did not increase by exposure to paraquat at both doses through a 96-h exposure period, reduced glutathione increased at 48 to 72 h, with an increase in glutathione disulfide reductase activities. In contrast, a marked loss in glutathione peroxidase activity was produced 48 h after exposure to 0.5 mM paraquat, preceding cell injury. Mercaptosuccinate, an inhibitor of glutathione peroxidase, distinctly hastened viability loss by paraquat. These results indicate that the reduced ability of the glutathione redox cycle, leading to high oxidative stress, is closely associated with paraquat-induced cytotoxicity. ©2002 Elsevier Science (USA).