The role of diet and physical activity in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivorship: a review of the literature.
Evidence for the role of diet and physical activity in cancer incidence is well documented, but owing to increased cancer survivorship, an understanding of these lifestyle factors after a cancer diagnosis is of crucial importance. The purpose of this review was to update the literature in a review undertaken for the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative and to include observational studies that were not included in the WCRF survivorship systematic review. Evidence was initially gathered from pre-defined searches of the Cochrane Library Database and PubMed from March 2006 to February 2010. After a comprehensive review regarding lifestyle and cancer, for the purpose of this article, any studies not related to diet and physical activity, prognostic outcomes, and breast, colorectal or prostate cancers were excluded. Another search of 2011 literature was conducted to update the evidence. A total of 43 records were included in this review. Evidence from observational studies suggests that a low-fat, high-fibre diet might be protective against cancer recurrence and progression. However, there is a paucity of RCTs substantiating this. There is more support for physical activity, with a dose response for better outcomes. When synthesized with findings from the World Cancer Research Fund review of RCTs investigating the effect of diet and physical activity interventions on cancer survival, evidence suggests that the mechanism of benefit from diet and physical activity pertains to body weight, with excess body weight being a risk factor, which is modifiable through lifestyle. Cancer survivors would like to have a more active role in their health care and to know how to look after themselves after diagnosis, including what diet and lifestyle changes they should make. The challenge is in integrating lifestyle support into standardised models of aftercare.