Influence of Human OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP1A2 on the Pharmacokinetics of Methotrexate and Paclitaxel in Humanized Transgenic Mice
Purpose: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) drug uptake transporters are thought to play an important role in drug pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics. We aimed to determine the influence of the individual human OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP1A2 transporters on the in vivo disposition of the anticancer drugs methotrexate and paclitaxel by using liver-specific humanized OATP1A/1B transgenic mice.Experimental Design: Wild-type, Slco1a/1b−/− (Oatp1a/1b knockout), Slco1a/1b−/−;1B1tg, Slco1a/1b−/−;1B3tg, and newly generated Slco1a/1b−/−;1A2tg (humanized OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP1A2 transgenic) mice were characterized biochemically and physiologically, and subsequently intravenously dosed with methotrexate or paclitaxel (2 or 10 mg/kg each) for pharmacokinetic analyses.Results: Humanized OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP1A2 transgenic mice all showed partial or complete rescue of increased plasma bilirubin levels, but also of the increased plasma levels and decreased liver and small intestinal accumulation of methotrexate observed in Slco1a/1b−/− mice. Furthermore, hepatic expression of OATP1B3 and OATP1A2, but not OATP1B1, resulted in increased liver uptake of paclitaxel (2 mg/kg). At 10 mg/kg, a modest effect of only OATP1A2 on paclitaxel liver uptake was observed.Conclusion: Human OATP1A/1B transporters play an important role in plasma and tissue distribution of the structurally diverse chemotherapeutics methotrexate (organic anion) and paclitaxel (hydrophobic, bulky). Variation in OATP1A/1B activity due to genetic variation and pharmacologic inhibition, or differences in tumor-specific expression levels might therefore affect plasma, tissue, and tumor levels of these drugs in patients, and hence their therapeutic efficacy. Humanized transgenic OATP1A/1B mice will provide excellent tools to further study these aspects in vivo for many (anticancer) drugs. Clin Cancer Res; 19(4); 821–32. ©2012 AACR.