Abnormal Norepinephrine Clearance and Adrenergic Receptor Sensitivity in Idiopathic Orthostatic Intolerance
Background—Chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by symptoms of inadequate cerebral perfusion with standing, in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension. A heart rate increase of ≥30 bpm is typical. Possible underlying pathophysiologies include hypovolemia, partial dysautonomia, or a primary hyperadrenergic state. We tested the hypothesis that patients with OI have functional abnormalities in autonomic neurons regulating cardiovascular responses.