Massive starburst galaxies in a z=2.16 proto-cluster unveiled by panoramic H-alpha mapping
We present a panoramic narrow-band study of H-alpha emitters in the field of the z=2.16 proto-cluster around PKS1138-262 using MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. We find 83 H-alpha emitters down to a SFR(Ha)~10Msun/yr across a ~7'x7' region centered on the radio galaxy, and identify ~10-Mpc scale filaments of emitters running across this region. By examining the properties of H-alpha emitters within the large-scale structure, we find that galaxies in the higher-density environments at z=2.16 tend to have redder colours and higher stellar masses compared to galaxies in more underdense regions. We also find a population of H-alpha emitters with red colours ((J-Ks)>1), which are much more frequent in the denser environments and which have apparently very high stellar masses with M*>~10^11Msun, implying that these cluster galaxies have already formed a large part of their stellar mass before z~2. Spitzer Space Telescope 24-micron data suggests that many of these red H-alpha emitters are bright, dusty starbursts (rather than quiescent sources). We also find that the proto-cluster galaxies follow the same correlation between SFR and M* (the "main sequence") of z~2 field star-forming galaxies, but with an excess of massive galaxies. These very massive star-forming galaxies are not seen in our similar, previous study of z~1 clusters, suggesting that their star-formation activity has been shut off at 1<~z<~2. We infer that the massive red (but active) galaxies in this rich proto-cluster are likely to be the products of environmental effects, and they represent the accelerated galaxy formation and evolution in a biased high density region in the early Universe.