Bounded biharmonic weights for real-time deformation
Object deformation with linear blending dominates practical use as the fastest approach for transforming raster images, vector graphics, geometric models and animated characters. Unfortunately, linear blending schemes for skeletons or cages are not always easy to use because they may require manual weight painting or modeling closed polyhedral envelopes around objects. Our goal is to make the design and control of deformations simpler by allowing the user to work freely with the most convenient combination of handle types. We develop linear blending weights that produce smooth and intuitive deformations for points, bones and cages of arbitrary topology. Our weights, called bounded biharmonic weights, minimize the Laplacian energy subject to bound constraints. Doing so spreads the influences of the controls in a shape-aware and localized manner, even for objects with complex and concave boundaries. The variational weight optimization also makes it possible to customize the weights so that they preserve the shape of specified essential object features. We demonstrate successful use of our blending weights for real-time deformation of 2D and 3D shapes.