Cabazitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours: Results of a Phase I and pharmacokinetic study
Although the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel are among the most active agents for the treatment of a wide range of cancers, tumours often develop resistance to these treatments. Cabazitaxel is a novel taxane active in both preclinical models of chemotherapy-sensitive and -resistant human tumours and patients with advanced prostate cancer that progressed following docetaxel treatment. To establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of cabazitaxel. Cabazitaxel was administered every 3 weeks to patients with advanced solid tumours. The design allowed intrapatient dose escalation. The primary objective was to determine the MTD. Secondary objectives were to describe the safety profile, establish an appropriate dose, determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of cabazitaxel, and assess antitumour activity. Twenty-one patients were recruited. The MTD was reached at 30 mg/m2, at which three of five patients experienced haematologic DLTs during the first cycle. DLTs during subsequent cycles were mainly haematologic and reported at 25 and 30 mg/m2 dosing levels. Nail disorders and severe alopecia were not reported, and neurotoxicity, fluid retention and hypersensitivity were mild and infrequent. Cabazitaxel demonstrated linear PK, a triphasic elimination profile, with a long half-life and high clearance. Of the 19 patients evaluable for response, one unconfirmed partial response and six occurrences of stable disease were reported. The 25 mg/m2 dose of cabazitaxel was recommended for use in future clinical studies. In this study, cabazitaxel had an acceptable tolerability profile and activity in cervical, colorectal, endometrial and lung cancers.