Sieving through the cancer secretome
Cancer is among the most prevalent and serious health problems worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel cancer biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for early detection and management of the disease. The cancer secretome, encompassing all the proteins that are secreted by cancer cells, is a promising source of biomarkers as the secreted proteins are most likely to enter the blood circulation. Moreover, since secreted proteins are responsible for signaling and communication with the tumor microenvironment, studying the cancer secretome would further the understanding of cancer biology. Latest developments in proteomics technologies have significantly advanced the study of the cancer secretome. In this review, we will present an overview of the secretome sample preparation process and summarize the data from recent secretome studies of six common cancers with high mortality (breast, colorectal, gastric, liver, lung and prostate cancers). In particular, we will focus on the various platforms that were employed and discuss the clinical applicability of the key findings in these studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome. âº Cancer is among the most prevalent and serious health problems worldwide. âº Urgent need for novel cancer biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. âº Cancer secretome is a promising source of biomarkers. âº Overview of secretome preparation process and various analytical platforms used. âº Key findings of recent secretome studies from six common cancers.