Fungal Decomposition of Natural Aromatic Structures and Xenobiotics: A Review
The review deals with transformation of natural and synthetic aromatic compounds by fungi (causative agents of white rot, brown rot, and soft rot, as well as soil filamentous fungi). Major enzyme types involved in the transformation of lignin and aromatic xenobiotics are discussed, with emphasis on activity regulation under the conditions of secondary metabolism and oxidative stress. Coupling of systems degrading polysaccharides and lignin and non-phenolic lignin structures (without the involvement of lignin peroxidase) is analyzed, together with nonenzymatic mechanisms involving lipoperoxide free radicals, cation radicals, quinoid mediators, or transition metal ions. Metabolic pathways resulting in the formation of aromatic and haloaromatic compounds in fungi are described. Consideration is given to the mechanisms of fungal adaptation to aromatic xenobiotics.