Nonlinear driven diffusive systems with dissipation: Fluctuating hydrodynamics
We consider a general class of nonlinear diffusive models with bulk dissipation and boundary driving and derive its hydrodynamic description in the large size limit. Both the average macroscopic behavior and the fluctuating properties of the hydrodynamic fields are obtained from the microscopic dynamics. This analysis yields a fluctuating balance equation for the local energy density at the mesoscopic level, characterized by two terms: (i) a diffusive term, with a current that fluctuates around its average behavior given by nonlinear Fourier's law, and (ii) a dissipation term which is a general function of the local energy density. The quasielasticity of microscopic dynamics, required in order to have a nontrivial competition between diffusion and dissipation in the macroscopic limit, implies a noiseless dissipation term in the balance equation, so dissipation fluctuations are enslaved to those of the density field. The microscopic complexity is thus condensed in just three transport coefficients—the diffusivity, the mobility, and a new dissipation coefficient—which are explicitly calculated within a local equilibrium approximation. Interestingly, the diffusivity and mobility coefficients obey an Einstein relation despite the fully nonequilibrium character of the problem. The general theory here presented is applied to a particular albeit broad family of systems, the simplest nonlinear dissipative variant of the so-called KMP model for heat transport. The theoretical predictions are compared to extensive numerical simulations, and an excellent agreement is found.