δ-SPH model for simulating violent impact flows
A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model with numerical diffusive terms, hereinafter referred to as Î´-SPH  is used to analyze violent water flows. The boundary conditions on solid surfaces of arbitrary shape are enforced with a new technique based on fixed ghost particles. The violent impacts studied result from dam-break water flows striking obstacles of different shapes. The numerical results are validated against experimental data from the literature and solutions from a Navier–Stokes Level-Set solver. Predicted impact pressures are also compared with analytical solutions. The proposed scheme thus proves to be accurate and robust for the prediction of global and local loads of impact flows on structures.