Global Phosphoproteomic Analysis Reveals Diverse Functions of Serine/Threonine/Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Model Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002
Increasing evidence shows that protein phosphorylation on serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and tyrosine (Tyr) residues is one of the major post-translational modifications in the bacteria, involved in regulating a myriad of physiological processes. Cyanobacteria are one of the largest groups of bacteria and are the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. Many cyanobacteria strains contain unusually high numbers of protein kinases and phosphatases with specificity on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues. However, only a few dozen phosphorylation sites in cyanobacteria are known, presenting a major obstacle for further understanding the regulatory roles of reversible phosphorylation in this group of bacteria. In this study, we carried out a global and site-specific phosphoproteomic analysis on the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In total, 280 phosphopeptides and 410 phosphorylation sites from 245 Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 proteins were identified through the combined use of protein/peptide prefractionation, TiO2 enrichment, and LC?MS/MS analysis. The identified phosphoproteins were functionally categorized into an interaction map and found to be involved in various biological processes such as two-component signaling pathway and photosynthesis. Our data provide the first global survey of phosphorylation in cyanobacteria by using a phosphoproteomic approach and suggest a wide-ranging regulatory scope of this modification. The provided data set may help reveal the physiological functions underlying Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation and facilitate the elucidation of the entire signaling networks in cyanobacteria.